ARI Publication 40 – 2013 Version

Research – Treatment
One study [Waring and Klovsra 2000] also reported high levels of urinary sulfite in children with
autism, suggesting that there was a problem of converting sulfite to sulfate in the mitochondria. In
38% of cases (14/38) urinary sulfite and sulfate levels improved by giving 50 mcg of molybdenum
(an essential mineral), presumably since the enzyme for converting sulfite to sulfate (sulfite
oxidase) contains molybdenum.

One study [Adams et al 2011] involved treatment with a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement that
included molybdenum and MSM. After three months of treatment, there was a substantial increase
in both free and total sulfate in the plasma, but levels were still below normal. This suggests that
additional treatment, such as Epsom salt baths, are necessary to normalize sulfate levels.


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to taurine and
inorganic sulfur. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011 Feb;34(1):17-32. Epub 2010 Feb 17.
Waring RH, Ngong JM, Klovrza L, Green
.s;. Sharp H: Biochemical Parameters in Autistic Children. Dev Brain
Dysfunct 1997, 10:40-43.
Geier DA, Kern JK, Garver CR, Adams JB, Audhya T, Geier MR: A prospective study oftranssulfuration
biomarkers in autistic disorders. Neurochem Res. 2009, 34(2):386-93. Erratum in: Neurochem Res. 2009,
O’Reilly BA and Warning RH: Enzyme andSulphur Oxidation Deficiencies in Autistic Children with Known
J. Orthomolecular Medicine 1993, 8(4):198-200.
AlbertiA, Pirrone
P, Elia M, Waring RH, Romano c;. AlbertiA, Pirrone P, Elia M, Waring RH, Romano C:
Sulphation deficit in “low-functioning" autistic children: a pilot study. Biol Psychiatry. 1999, 46(3):420-4.
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Waring RH and Klovrza L
v.· Sulfur Metabolism in Autism. J. Nutritional & Environmental Medicine 2000, 10:25-

Agape is proud to have
been involved in this study and
mentioned on page 16.