One small study of minerals in red blood cells found that young Canadian children with autism had
lower levels of RBC selenium and RBC molybdenum than neurotypical children of the same age
[24], but similar levels of most other minerals.
JoryJ and McGinnis W.; Red-Cell Trace Minerals in Children with Autism. American Journal ofBiochemistry
andBiotechnology 2008, 4(2):101-104.

A small study of zinc and copper in plasma found that British children with autism had similar levels
to neurotypical children.
Jackson Ml and Gerard Pl: Plasma Zinc, Copper, andAmino Acid Levels in the Blood ofAutistic Children.
J Autism Childhood Schizophrenia 1978, 8(2):203-208

In contrast, a study of Turkish children with autism found that they had lower levels of zinc in
plasma and RBC compared to neurotypical children.
Yorbik 0, Akay c; SayalA, CanseverA, Sohmen T, CavdarAO: Zinc Status in Autistic Children J. Trace
Elements Experimental Medicine 2004, 17:101-107.

Research – Treatment

A large, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study found that a similar strong, balanced
multi-vitamin/mineral supplement resulted in modest but statistically significant improvements in
the Average Change of all symptoms on the Parent Global Impressions-Revised, and significant
improvements in subscores in expressive language, tantrumming, hyperactivity, and overall
symptoms. The supplement improved the level of many vitamins and minerals. There were also
many improvements in metabolism, including improvements in oxidative stress, methylation,
glutathione, sulfation, plasma ATP. The children with low levels of vitamin Kand biotin (both made
by gut bacteria) improved the most.
AdamsJB et al, Effect ofa Vitamin/Mineral Supplement on Children with Autism, BMCPediatrics 2011,

One open-label study [49] found that micronutrient supplementation was comparable or more
effective than treatment with pharmaceuticals in terms of improvements in the Childhood Autism
Rating Scale, Childhood Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions, and Self-Injurious
Meh/-Madrona L etal, Micronutrients versus standard medication management in autism: a naturalistic
casecontrol study. J ChildAdolesc Psychopharmacol 2010, 20(2):95-103.

One small randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study published found that a strong,
balanced multi-vitamin/mineral supplement resulted in improvements in children with autism in
sleep and gut function, and possibly in other areas.
AdamsJB et al, Pilotstudy ofa moderate dose multivitamin-mineralsupplement for children with autistic
spectrum disorder. J A/tern Complement Med. 2004 Dec;10(6):1033-9.

One study found that high-dose vitamin C (1.1 g per 10 kg bodyweight) helped children with
Dolske MC et al, A preliminary trial ofascorbic acid as supplemental therapy for autism. Prog
Neuropsychopharmaco/ Biol Psychiatry 1993 Sep;17(5):765-74.

Agape is proud to have
been involved in this study and
mentioned on page 16.