ARI Publication 40 – 2013 Version

e) For magnesium, the UL is the amount for supplements and does not count food sources
f) Estimated daily intake of lithium in food is 1900 mcg/day for adults.
g) One study found that children with autism have slightly elevated manganese, so either low or no
supplementation is sufficient for most children with autism.

Duration: Lifelong, although improving diet and healing gut may reduce the need for
supplementation.

Safety Note: Most vitamins are water soluble, and excess amounts of them will be safely excreted
in the urine. Some vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, K) are fat soluble, and excess amounts of those can
build up in the body and cause toxicity if taken at high levels (above what we recommend) for a
long time.
Excess amounts of minerals can cause problems, and the upper limits listed above should not be
exceeded without consultation with a physician or nutritionist.
Start with a low dose (1/5 of that listed above), and gradually increase over 1 month.

ARI Survey of Parent Ratings of Treatment Efficacy:

%Worse% No Change% BetterNumber of Reports
Vitamin A2%54%4%1535
CalciumE:3%60%36%2832
Folic Acid5%50%45%2505
Magnesium6%65%29%301
P5P (Vit. B6)13%37%51%213
Vitamin B34%51%45%1192
Vitamin B6 alone8%63%30%620
Vitamin B6 with Magnesium4%46%49%7256
Vitamin B12 (methyl, subcut.)6%22%72899
Vitamin C2%52%46%3077
Zinc2%44%54%2738

Research – Vitamins:
One large comprehensive study found that children with autism had lower levels of several vitamins
(especially biotin) and some minerals (lithium, calcium, and magnesium) and impairments in
sulfation, methylation, glutathione, ATP, and oxidative stress, compared to neurotypical children of
the same age. The severity of autism was strongly associated with the level of certain vitamins and
minerals.

Adams JB et al., Nutritional and Metabolic Status ofChildren with Autism vs. Neurotypical Children, and
the Association with Autism Severity, Nutr. Metab {Land) 2011 Jun 8:8(1):34.

One study in China found that most children with autism had inadequate intake of folic acid, vitamin
B6, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and zinc, based on estimating dietary intake from diet logs (not
as accurate as blood measurements).

Xia Wet al., A preliminary study on nutritional status and intake in Chinese children with autism. Eur J
Pediatr 2010, 69(10):1201-6.

One study in Romania found normal levels of vitamin B12 and folate in children with autism
compared to controls, but low levels of plasma glutathione, consistent with the Adams et al 2011
study. In other words, it seems that children with autism need extra amounts of vitamin B12 and
folate to have normal glutathione.

Agape is proud to have
been involved in this study and
mentioned on page 16.

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