ARI Publication 40 – 2013 Version

Jyonouchi et al, Dysregulated innate immune responses in young children with autism spectrum
disorders: their relationship to gastrointestinal symptoms and dietary intervention.
Neuropsychobiology. 2005;51(2):77-85.
Jyonouchi et al, Evaluation ofan association between gastrointestinal symptoms and cytokine production
against common dietary proteins in children with autism spectrum disorders.
J Pediatr. 2005 May;146(5):605-10.
Jyonouchi et al, Innate immunity associated with inflammatory responses and cytokine production
against common dietary proteins in patients with autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychobiology.

A study by Lucarelli et al found that an 8-week diet that avoided allergic foods resulted in benefits
in an open study of 36 children.

Lucarelli et alt Food allergy and infantile autism. Panminerva Med. 1995Sep;37(3):137-41.

Three studies have demonstrated that children and adults with autism often have low levels of
digestive enzymes for sugars and carbohydrates, especially the sugar in milk, which reduces the
ability to digest those foods (see section on Digestive Enzymes).

Three studies have demonstrated that some individuals have increased intestinal permeability, so
that large sugar molecules that normally would not be absorbed are able to pass through the
intestinal wall into the blood stream. This “leaky gut" may allow other partly digested foods to pass
into the body, potentially causing an allergic or immune response to those foods.
It is unclear if
this test for sugars is relevant to proteins since they are absorbed by a different mechanism.

de Magistris L et al, Alterations ofthe intestinal barrier in patients with autism spectrum disorders and in
their first-degree relatives. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010 Oct;51{4):418-24.
D’Eufemia P, Celli M, Finocchiaro R, etal: Abnormal intestinal permeability in children with autism. Acta
Paediatr 1996,85:1076-1079.
Horvath K, Zielke H, Collins
J, et al: Secretin improves intestinal permeability in autistic children. J Pediatr
Gastroenterol Nutr 2000, 31{suppl 2):S30-S31.

There are many studies of gastrointestinal problems in children and adults with autism (see reviews
by Buie et al 2010 and Coury et al 2012), and inflammation of the gut will greatly increase the
likelihood that the immune cells in the gastrointestinal tract will react to foods.

Buie, T., etal (201O ). Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment ofgastrointestinal disorders in individuals
with ASDs: a consensus report. Pediatrics 125Suppl 1, Sl-18.
Coury DL et al (2012) Gastrointestinal Conditions in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Developing
a Research Agenda, Pediatrics V130, Supplement 2 pp S160-168.

Limitations of IgG blood testing
Two studies found that IgG blood testing was not clinically relevant to the general population for
identification of food allergies.

Hochwallner, H et al (2011). Patients suffering from non-lgE-mediated cow~ milkprotein intolerance
cannot be diagnosed based on IgG subclass orIgA responses to milk allergens. Allergy 66, 1201-1207.
Mitchelt N., (2011). Randomised controlled trial offood elimination diet based on IgG antibodies for the
prevention ofmigraine like headaches. NutrJ 10, 85. (NEGATIVE RESULTS}

Agape is proud to have
been involved in this study and
mentioned on page 16.